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Donald Pinkel


Donald Pinkel (MD), pioneer of paediatric haematology and oncology, February 2008.

"My aim is to continue to enjoy my family, teach and be helpful to anyone who seeks and might benefit from my help. My wish is that there was some way that I could contribute to the dream of August 1945-a world united to establish social and economic justice and to maintain universal peace and mutual respect and caring among all people."

Donald Pinkel, pioneer of paediatric haematology and oncology, February 2008.

Dr. Donald Pinkel, pediatrician, has received numerous recognitions for his contributions to the cure of childhood leukaemia and other forms of pediatric cancer. These include international awards: the Lasker Award for Medical Research, the Kettering Prize for Cancer Research and the Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research. The American Cancer Society gave him their Annual Award for Clinical Research and the Leukemia-Lymphoma Society of America  the Return of the Child award. In Germany he received the Zimmerman Prize for Cancer Research and in the United Kingdom the Leukemia Society Annual Lectureship and the Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health biennial Windermere Lectureship.

Dr. Pinkel became deeply concerned about children with cancer as a medical student and committed himself to them as a resident in Pediatrics, initiating a clinical cancer program in 1953 in Buffalo Children's Hospital. His plan for further study of childhood cancer was interrupted in 1954 by active duty as a medical officer in the US Army where he became partly paralysed.  After retirement from the Army he worked with Professor Sidney Farber, the person who developed the first effective drug against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), during his veterans’ rehabilitation in Boston. He returned to Buffalo in 1956 to begin and direct a pediatric research and treatment service at Roswell Park Cancer Centre. There he joined with Dr James Holland and with Drs. Emil Frei and Emil J Freireich of the National Cancer Institute to develop systematic comparative evaluations of chemotherapy of acute leukemia in children and adults.

 Although prolonged survival of children with ALL was achieved by sequential or combination therapy with the five anti leukemia drugs that became available between Dr. Farber's 1948 discovery and 1961, the disease remained fatal. In addition a new problem emerged. Children in remission of ALL with normal blood and bone marrow findings developed leukemia in the central nervous system because most of the anti-leukemia drugs failed to pass from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid in effective levels.

  In 1962 Dr. Pinkel opened St Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis as founding Director. Focusing on ALL, the most frequent cancer in young children, he and his colleagues identified four major obstacles to its cure: drug resistance, drug toxicity, meningeal relapse and most important, pessimism. Cure of leukemia was generally considered impossible.

 Dr Pinkel and his colleagues at St Jude, the patron of the hopeless, instituted a treatment program aimed at permanent cure of ALL. Called “Total Therapy”, it was based on all the available relevant laboratory and clinical research and experience. There were four phases: remission induction, remission consolidation or intensification, specific pre-emptive meningeal treatment and continuation chemotherapy for 3 years. Both radiotherapy and instillation of drug directly into spinal fluid were used for meningeal treatment. Eventually a 50% cure rate was achieved in the 1967-68 study V; this cure rate continues for the children in this study 40 years later. This was the first significant cure rate for generalized cancer and for primarily drug treatment of cancer.

  This four-phase treatment plan is still used in 2008 with numerous modifications. Increases in resources and trained physicians and nurses, better infection control, safer blood transfusion and newer drugs and drug schedules have increased the reported cure rates to 75-85 % of treated children with ALL in developed countries. Better use of drugs both systemically and by instillation into the spinal fluid have replaced the need for radiation therapy to pre-empt meningeal relapse in most children with ALL. Sadly, children in developing nations and communities have much less access to curative treatment and the vast majority die.

  Dr. Pinkel and his colleagues also pioneered the multidisciplinary team approach to children with solid cancers, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy to prevent metastases and of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to shrink tumours prior to surgery or radiation therapy.

It has been my privilege to care for children and of course to experience the thrill of seeing children cured of disease considered incurable, says Dr. Pinkel.

Born in Buffalo, New York in 1926, he was the fifth of seven children. His father was German-American and his mother Irish-Canadian, “an interesting couple, who admired and enjoyed each other’s ethnic characteristics”, Dr. Pinkel remembers. “Each was raised by impoverished widows, left school early and knew hardship; they were loving champions of the poor and unfortunate as well as of their seven children. My mother was a loving, generous and industrious full time wife and mother. My father was a hardware salesman, whom I often accompanied as he made his rounds of hardware stores and lumber mills in western New York State, when I was not in school.”

He disliked school despite doing well until he was placed in a class with a superb and innovative teacher at age eleven for three years. “A Sister of St Mary, she gave me serious motivation to excel in academic studies. As a result I competed successfully to win a full scholarship to a Jesuit high school where the faculty emphasized that one must first be a humanist in order to study sciences and apply them appropriately.”

His decision to study medicine grew from his deep empathy for people who where unfortunate and his wish to help those people like his oldest sister did. As a student nurse she taught the five-year-old Don the circulation of the blood. Probably from this moment his interest in medicine was aroused. His lifelong interest in people with hematologic diseases and their science-based prevention and treatment was stimulated by Prof. David Miller, his mentor during an elective in hematology in his second year at the University at Buffalo medical school. “He was a superb scientist and teacher and a modest, gentle compassionate physician,” Dr Pinkel remembers, “and became my model”.

Before he met this impressive physician, World War II changed the lives of every family everywhere. Adolescent boys would need to serve in the military. “I was convinced that I could never kill or wound another person and decided that I must serve as a hospital corpsman or medical officer. At age 17 I was privileged to enlist in the United States Navy as an apprentice seaman in a medical officer training program at Cornell University. The war ended earlier than expected so I continued medical studies as a civilian at the University at Buffalo, graduating in 1951”, Dr. Pinkel explains.

His most happy moments “are with my wife and family in the loving care we share”, Dr Pinkel says. But he is also happy that he became a paediatrician, initiated research and treatment centres and programs for children, taught generations of medical students and paediatricians, and as an octogenarian still teaches at California Polytechnic State University. in San Luis Obispo. “I am also pleased and proud of my ten children and 16 grandchildren.”

Visiting with his large family is one of the greatest pleasures of Dr. Pinkel, who keeps himself fit with swimming and enjoys music. Even at the age of 81 the pioneer of paediatric haematology and oncology is still restless; he still would like to help people who seek and bring more justice and peace to the world.

(Angela Grosse)

Historical perspective of leukemia by Donald Pinkel

Curriculum Vitae

Present Titles and Affiliations:

  • Professor Emeritus, Pediatrics University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas
  • Founding Director, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis
  • Adjunct Professor, Biological Sciences California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, California
  • Clinical Professor, Pediatrics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Birth Date and Place:

September 7, 1926, Buffalo, New York


  • 1947B.S., Canisius College, Buffalo, New York
  • 1951 M.D., University at Buffalo School of Medicine, Buffalo, New York
Postgraduate Training:
  • 1951-1954 Intern (1 year), Resident (1 year), and Chief Resident (1 year) in Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
  • 1955-1956 Research Fellow, Children's Cancer Research Foundation (now Dana-Farber Cancer Institute), Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA

Specialty Boards:

  • 1956 American Board of Pediatrics (No. 5783)
  • 1980 Sub-Board, American Board of Pediatrics, Hematology/Oncology (No. 528)

Academie and Professional Appointments:

  • 1956- 1961Chief of Pediatrics, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York
  • 1961 –1973 Founding Director, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
  • 1961 –1973 Professor of Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine,University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee
  • 1974-1978 Professor and Chairman, Department of Pediatrics, The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • Pediatrician-in-Chief, Milwaukee Children's Hospital, Director, Midwest Children's Cancer Center
  • 1978-1982 Chairman, Division of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California
  • 1982- 1985 Professor and Chairman, Department of Pediatrics, Temple University School of Medicine,
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Director of Pediatrics, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children,
  • 1985-1993 Kelcie Margaret Kana Research Chair in Pediatric Leukemia University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
  • 1994 – Present Professor Emeritus University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
  • 1985-1999 Professor, Pediatrics University of Texas Medical School Houston, Texas
  • 1998-2001 Professor, Pediatrics Texas MM University College of Medicine College Station, TX
  • 2002 – Present Adjunct Professor, Biological Sciences California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, California Clinical Professor, Pediatrics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

National, International Committees:

  • Research Grant Committee, Children's Cancer Research Fund, Los Angeles Medical Advisory Board of Directors Leukemia and Lymphoma Research Foundation, New York
  • Referee, United Kingdom Leukemia Research Fund London, England

Past Membership an Editorial Boards

  • Cancer Research
  • Journal of Clinical Oncology

Honors and Awards:

  • 1953 Mead Johnson Resident Fellowship
  • 1972 Albert Lasker Award for Medical Research
  • 1972 Annual Lectureship,Leukemia Research Fund of United Kingdom
  • 1974 Biennial Windermere Lectureship, Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health
  • 1974 Distinguished Alumni Award, University at Buffalo, New York
  • 1975 Pearlstein Lectureship, University of Louisville
  • 1976 John F. Kennedy Lectureship, Georgetown University
  • 1978 David Karnofsky Memorial Award, American Society for Clinical Oncology
  • 1978Frederick Stohlman Memorial Lectureship, Hamburg,Germany
  • 1979 Zimmeruran Prize for Cancer Research,Hanover, Germany
  • 1981 Perey Research Lectureship, McMaster University,Hamilton, Canada
  • 1982 Clowes Lectureship, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, NY
  • 1984 Mead Johnson Lectureship, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN
  • 1986 Kettering Prize for Cancer Research, General Motors Cancer Research Foundation, New York, NY
  • 1988 Annual Medal of Honor for Clinical Research, American Cancer Society
  • 1989 Canisius College Distinguished Alumni Award, Buffalo, NY
  • 1991 Myron Karon Memorial Lectureship, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
  • 1992 Return of the Child Award,Leukemia Society of America
  • 1994 Frederick S. Phillips Lectureship Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY
  • 2000 Distinguished Alumnus Award University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Science Buffalo, New York
  • 2003 Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital Columbia University Medical Center

Society Memberships

  • American Pediatric Society, Emeritus
  • American Association for Cancer Research, Emeritus
  • Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • International Association for Comparative Leukemia Research and Related Diseases
  • American Society of Hematology
  • American Society for Clinical Oncology

Past Membership on Advisory or Peer Review Committees

  • National Cancer Institute Special Virus Cancer Program
  • National Cancer Institute Cancer Chemotherapy Collaborative, Clinical Trials Review Committee
  • National Cancer Institute Clinical Training Grant Committee
  • American Cancer Society Council for Analysis and Projection
  • American Cancer Society National Committee on Childhood Cancer


Selected Articles

Articles in Refereed Journals:

  • 1.Simpson CL, Pinkel D. Pathology in leukemia complicated by measles. Pediatrics 21:436, 1958
  • 2.Goldstein MN, Pinkel D. Long-term tissue culture of neuroblastomas. J Natl Cancer 20:675, 1958 1.Pinkel D. The use of body surface area as a criterion of drug dosage in cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Res 18:853, 1958
  • 1.Stickler GB, Pinkel D. Plasmacytosis of bone marrow and hypergammaglobulinemia in acute leukemia. Pediatrics 2:659, 1958
  • 2.Stickler GB, Pinkel D. Calculation of nutritional allowances for infants and children on the basis of body surface. J Pediatr 53:464-66, 1958
  • Frei E, Holland JF, Schneiderman MA, Pinkel D, Selkirk G, Freireich EJ, Silver RT, Gold GL, Regelson W. A comparative study of two regimens of combination chemotherapy in acute leukemia. Blood 13:1126, 1958
  • 7.Pinkel D. Actinomycin D in childhood cancer. Pediatrics 23:342, 1959
  • 8.Pinkel D, Nefzger D. Some epidemiological features of childhood leukemia in the Buffalo, New York area. Cancer 12:351, 1959
  • 9.Stickler GB, Pinkel D. Reticuloendotheliosis complicated by xanthomatous biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 36:702, 1959
  • 10.Pinkel D, Nefzger D. Some epidemiological features of adult leukemia in the Buffalo, New York area. Cancer 13:102, 1960
  • 11.Stickler GB, Pinkel D. Serum protein fractions in children with malignant tumors. Cancer 13:466, 1960
  • 12.Freireich EJ, Frei E, Holland JF, Pinkel D, Selawry O, Rothberg H, Haurani F, Taylor R, Gehan E. Evaluation of a new chemotherapeutic agent in patients with "advanced refractory" acute leukemia. Studies of 6-azauracil. Blood 16:1268, 1960
  • 13.Hoogstratten B, Schroeder LR, Freireich EJ, Frei E, Holland F, Pinkel D, Vogel P, Mills SD, Burgen O, Hayes DM, Spur CL, Kurkruoglu M, Storrs R, Ebaugh F, Wolman IJ,Haurani F, Gendel B, Gehan E. Cyclophosphamide (cytoxan) in acute leukemia. Preliminary report: A study by Acute Leukemia Cooperative Group B. Cancer Chemotherapy Rep 8:16, 1960
  • 14.Pinkel D. Chlorambucil in childhood cancer. Cancer 14:36, 1961
  • 15.Pinkel D, Pickren J. Rhabdomyosarcoma in children. JAMA 175:298, 1961
  • 15.Pinkel D. Chickenpox and leukemia. JPediatr 58:729, 1961
  • 16.Delta BG, Pinkel D, Hubbard J, Magtibay L. Streptovitacin A in children with cancer. Cancer Chemother Rep 11:45, 1961
  • 17.Delta BG, Pinkel D. Pilot study of 6-azauridine in children with advanced solid neoplasms. Cancer Chemother Rep 11:143, 1961
  • 18.Frei E, Freireich E, Pinkel D, Holland J, Selawry O, Haurani F, Spurr C, Hayes D, James GW, Rothberg H, Sodee DB, Rundles RW, Gehan E, Schroeder L, Hoogstraten B, Wolman I. Studies of sequential and combination antimetabolite therapy in acute leukemia: 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate. Blood 13:431, 1961
  • 19.Bellanti JA, Pinkel D. Idiopathic aplastic anemia treated with methyltestosterone and fresh platelets. JAMA 178:170, 1961
  • 16.Pinkel D. Cyclophosphamide in children with cancer. Cancer 15:42, 1962
  • 20.Delta B, Pinkel D. Listeriosis complicating aeute leukemia. JPediatr 60:191, 1962
  • 17.Pinkel D, Dowd J, Bross I. Some epidemiological features of malignant solid tumors of children in the Buffalo, New York area. Cancer 16:28, 1963
  • 18.Pinkel D. Successful cultivation of Spleen fragments in organ culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 112:242, 1963
  • 21.Freireich EJ, Gehan E, Freireich E, Schroeder LR, Wolman IJ, Anbari R, Burgert EO, Mills SD, Pinkel D, Selawry OS, Moon JH, Gendel BR, Spurr CL, Storrs R, Haurani F, Hoogstraten B, Lee S. The effect of 6-mercaptopurine on the duration of steroid induced remissions in acute leukemia: A model for evaluation of other potentially useful therapy. Blood 21:699, 1963
  • 22.Delta BG, Pinkel D. Bone marrow aspiration in children with malignant tumors. J Pediatr 64:542, 1964
  • 19.Pinkel D. Cultivation of mouse thymus in organ culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 116:54, 1964
  • 23.James DH, Hustu O, Wrenn EI, George P, Borella L, Hemandez K, Pinkel D. Chemotherapy of localized inoperable malignant tumors of children. JAMA 189:636- 638,1964
  • 24.James DH, Hustu O, Wrenn EI, Pinkel D. combination chemotherapy of childhood neuroblastoma. JAMA 194:123-126, 1965
  • 25.Yoshida K, Smith KL, Pinkel D. Studies of murine leukemia viruses. Detection of Moloney and Rauseher leukemia viruses by indirect immunofluorescence. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 121:72, 1966
  • 31.Pinkel D, Yoshida K, Smith K. Studies of Moloney and Rauscher leukemia viruses in cell cultures by immunofluorescence. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 22:671, 1966
  • 32.Smith JW, Freeman A, Pinkel D. Search for a human leukemia virus. Archiv für die Gesamte Virusforschung 22:294, 1967
  • 33.Pinkel D. The ultrastructure of human fetal thymus. Am Jdis Child 115:222, 1968
  • 34.O'Neill P, Pinkel D. Wilms' tumor in bone marrow aspirate. JPediatr 72:396, 1968
  • 35.George P, Hernandez K, Hustu O, Borella L., Holton C, Pinkel D. A study of "total therapy" of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children. JPediatr 72:399, 1968
  • 31.Pinkel D, Yoshida K. Quantitative assay of Moloney leukemia virus and Rauscher leukemia virus by immunofluorescence in cell culture. Bibl Haematologica 31:89, 1968. Also in Leukemia in Animals and Man, edited by H.J Bendixen, published by S. Karger, Basel, New York, 1968
  • 31.Hustu HO, Holton C, James DH, Pinkel D. Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. JPediatr 73:249, 1968
  • 32.Pratt CB, James DH, Holton CP, Pinkel D. Combination chemotherapy including vincristine (NSC-67574) in the management of childhood malignant solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep 52:489, 1968
  • 32.Pinkel D, Pratt C, Holton D, James DH, Wrenn E, Hustu HO. Survival of children with neuroblastoma treated with combination chemotherapy. JPediatr 73:928, 1968
  • 33.Smith J, Pinkel D, Dabrowski S. Detection of a Small virus in a cultivated human Wilms' tumor. Cancer 24:527, 1969
  • 34.Hernandez K, Pinkel D, Lee S, Leone L. Chemotherapy with 6-azauridine (NSC-32074) for patients with leukemia. Cancer Chemother Rep 53:203, 1969
  • 33.Pinkel D, Hernandez K, Borella L, Holton C, Aur R, Samoy G, Pratt C. Drug dosage and remission duration in childhood lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 27:247, 1971
  • 35.Aur RJA, Simone J, Hustu HO, Walters T, Borella L, Pratt C, Pinkel D. Central nervous system therapy and combination chemotherapy of childhood lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 37:272, 1971
  • 34.Pinkel D. Five year follow-up of "total therapy" of childhood lymphocytic leukemia. JAMA 216:648, 1971
  • 36.Aur RJA, Hustu HO, Simone JV, Pratt CB, Pinkel D. Therapy of localized and regional lymphosarcoma of childhood. Cancer 27:1328, 1971
  • 46.Pratt CB, Hustu HO, Fleming ID, Pinkel D. Coordinated treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma with surgery, radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy. Cancer Res 32:606, 1972
  • 46.Pinkel D, Simone J, Hustu HO, Aur RJA. Nine years experience with "total therapy" of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Pediatrics 50:246, 1972
  • 46.Walters TR, Aur RJA, Hernandez K, Vietti T, Pinkel D. 6-Azauridine in combination chemotherapy for acute myelocytic leukemia. Cancer 29:1057, 1972
  • 47.Hustu HO, Pinkel D, Pratt CB. Treatment of clinically localized Ewing's sarcoma with radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy. Cancer 30:1522, 1972
  • 48.Hustu HO, Aur RJA, Verzosa MS, Simone JV, Pinkel D. Prevention of central nervous system leukemia by irradiation. Cancer 32:585, 1973
  • 49.Aur RJA, Simone JV, Hustu HO, Verzosa MS, Pinkel D. Cessation of therapy during complete remission of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. N Engl JMed 291:1230, 1974
  • 50.Simone JV, Aur RJA, Hustu HO, Verzosa M, Pinkel D. Combined modality therapy of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 35:25, 1975
  • 51.Kumar APM, Hustu HO, Fleming ID, Wrenn EL, Pratt CB, Johnson W, Pinkel D. Capsular and vascular Invasion: Important prognostic factors in Wilms' tumor. JPediatr Surg 10:301, 1975
  • 52.Kumar AP, Wrenn LE, Fleming ID, Hustu HO, Pratt CB, Pinkel D. Preoperative therapy for unresectable malignant tumors in children. JPediatr Surg 10:657, 1975
  • 53.Verzosa MS, Aur RJA, Simone JV, Hustu HO, Pinkel D. Five years alfer central nervous system irradiation of children with leukemia. Int J Rad Onc Biol Phys 1:209, 1976
  • 54.Jayalakshmamma B, Pinkel D. Urinary bladder toxicity following pelvic irradiation and simultaneous cyclophosphamide therapy. Cancer 8:701, 1976
  • 55.Green AA, Hustu HO, Palmer R, Pinkel D. Total-body sequential segmental irradiation and combination chemotherapy for children with disseminated neuroblastoma. Cancer 38:2250, 1976
  • 47.Pinkel D, Hustu HO, Aur RJA, Smith J, Borella L, Simone J. Radiotherapy in leukemia and lymphoma of children. Cancer 39:817, 1977
  • 56.Aur RJA, Simone JV, Verzosa MS, Hustu HO, Barleer LF, Pinkel D, Rivera G, Dahl GV, Wood A, Stagner S, Mason C. Childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Study VIII. Cancer 42:2123-2134, 1978
  • 60.Simone JV, Aur RJA, Hustu HO, Verzosa MS, Pinkel D. Three to ten years after cessation of therapy in children with leukemia. Cancer 42:839-844, 9-844, 1978
  • 61.Camitta B, Pinkel D, Thatcher L, Casper J, Kun L, Lauer S. Failure of early intensive chemotherapy to improve prognosis in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia Med Pediatr Oncol 8:383-389, 1981
  • 62.Camitta B, Kun L, Glicklich M, Oechler H, Adair S, Pinkel D. Doxorubicin-vincristine therapy of Wilms'tumor: A pilot study. Cancer Treatment Rep 66:1791-1794, 1982
  • 63.Pinkel D, Camitta B, Kun L, Howarth C, Tang T. Doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in children with left-sided Wilms' tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 10:483-488,1982
  • 60.Lauer SJ, Pinkel D, Buchanan GR, Sartain P, Corner JM, Krance R, Borella LD, Casper JT, Kun LE, Hoffman RG, Camitta BM. Cytosine arabinoside/cyclo-phosphamide pulses during continuation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 60:2366-2371, 1987
  • 61.Liang JC, Pinkel D, Bailey NM, Trujillo JM. Mutagen sensitivity and Cancer susceptibility. Cancer 64:1474-1479, 1989
  • 62.Rush M, Toth BB, Pinkel D. Clinically isolated mandibular relapse in childhood acute leukemia. Cancer 66:369-372, 1990
  • 63.Newman EM, Villacorte DG, Testi AM, Krance RA, Harris MB, Ravindranath Y, Pinkel D. Biochemical interactions between methotrexate and 1-B-D-arabinofurano-sylcytosine in hematopoietic cells of children. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 27:60-66, 1990
  • 60.Culbert SJ, Shuster JJ, Land VJ, Wharam MD, Thomas PRM, Nitschke R, Pinkel D, Vietti TJ. Remission induction and continuation therapy in children with first relapse of acute lymphoid leukemia. Cancer 67:37-42, 1991
  • 64.Cho JS, Kim EE, Ro JH, Pinkel DP, Goepfert H, Mandibular Chloroma demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Head Neck 12: 507-11, 1990
  • 65.Krance RA, Newman EM, Ravindranath Y, Harris MB, Brecher M, Wimmer R, Shuster JJ, Land VJ, Pullen J, Crist W, Pinkel D. A pilot study of intermediate dose methotrexate and ara-c "spread-out" or "up-front" in continuation therapy for childhood non-T, non-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 67:550-556, 1991
  • 66.Jorgenson KF, Antoun GR, Childs CC, Felix EA, Cork A, Yee G, Trujillo JM, Pinkel DP, Zipf TF. 8,20 Chromosomal translocation in a case of acute leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 52:1-9, 1991
  • 67.Re GG, Estrov Z, Antoun GR, Felix EA, Pinkel DP, Zipf TF. Differentiation in B­precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell populations with CD34 positive subpopulations. Blood 78:575-580, 1991
  • 73.Dow LW, Raimondi SC, Culbert SJ, Ochs J, Kennedy W, Pinkel D. Response to alpha­interferon in children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia. Cancer 68:1678-1684, 1991
  • 74.Gottlieb RA, Pinkel D, Meehan MA, Verani R, Ashkenazi S, Eftekhari F, Moake JL, Portman RJ. Acute renal failure in a female adolescent with leukemia in remission. JPediatr 6:999-1006, 1991
  • 73.Pinkel D. Lessons from 20 years of curative therapy of childhood acute leulcaemia. Br J Cancer 65:148-153, 1992
  • 73.Morris L, Lynch PM, Gleason WA, Schauder C, Pinkel D, Duvic M. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: Laser photocoagulation of colonic hemangiomas in a child with microcytic anemia. JPediatr Derm 9:91-94, 1992
  • 74.Pinkel D. Bone marrow transplantation in children. J Pediat 122:331-341, 1993
  • 75.Pinkel D. Intravenous mercaptopurine: Life begins at 40. J Clin Oncol 11:1826-1831, 1993
  • 74.Rivera GK, Pinkel D, Simone JV, Hancock ML, Crist WM. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 30 Years' experience at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. N Eng J Med 329:1289-1295, 1993
  • 75.Lockhart S, Plunkett W, Jeha S, Ramirez I, Zipf T, Cork A, Pinkel D. High-dose mercaptopurine followed by intermediate-dose cytarabine in relapsed acute leukemia. J Clin Oncol 12:587-595, 1994
  • 76.Estrov Z, Ouspenskaia MV, Felix EA, McClain KL, Lee M-S, Harris D, Pinkel DP, Zipf TF. Persistence of self-renewing leukemia cell progenitors during remission in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 8:46-52, 1994
  • 76.Pinkel D, Woo S. Prevention and treatment of meningeal leukemia in children. Blood 84:355-366, 1994
  • 77.Land VJ, Shuster JJ, Crist WM, Ravindranath Y, Harris MB, Krance RA, Pinkel D, Pullen DJ. Comparison of two schedules of intermediate-dose methotrexate and cytarabine consolidation therapy for childhood B-precursor cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 12:1939-1945, 1994
  • 78.Hord MH, Smith TL, Culbert SJ, Frankel LS, Pinkel DP. Ethnicity and cure of Texas children treated for acute lymphoid leukemia. Cancer 77:563-569, 1996
  • 79.Graham ML, Shuster JJ, Kamen BA, Land VJ, Borowitz MJ, Camitta B, Cheo DL, Harrison MP, Leventhal BG, Pinkel DP, Pullen DJ, Steuber P, Whitehead VM: Changes in red blond cell methotrexate pharmacology and their Impact an outcome when cytarabine is infused with methotrexate in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Clin Cancer Res 2:331-337, 1996
  • 86.Canpolat C, Jeha S, Lockhart S, Ramirez I, Zipf T, Pinkel DP, High-dose mercaptopurine and intermediate dose cytarabine during first remission of acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Investigation 15:121-126, 1997.
  • 87.Pinkel, D. Genotypic classification of clüldhood acute lymphoid leukemia. Leukemia 13, suppl 1:590-91, 1999
  • 88.Manera R, Ramirez I, Mullins J, Pinkel D. , Pilot studies of species-specific chemotherapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia using genotype and immunophenotype. Leukemia 14, 1354-1361, 2000
  • 86.Buchanan GR, Rivera GK, Pollock BH, Boyett JM, Chauvenet AR, Wagner H, Maybee DA, Crist WM, Pinkel D, Alternating drug pairs with or without periodic reinduction in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second bone marrow remission. Cancer 88: 1166-1174,2000

Invited Artieles in Journals:

  • 1.Pinkel D. Body surface and dosage: A pragmatic view. Quart Rev of Pediatr 14:187, 1959
  • 2.Pinkel D. The management of cutaneous hemangiomas in infants: A pediatrician's view. NY State J Med 60:146, 1960
  • 3.Pinkel D. Pitfalls concerning tumors and leukemia. Pediatr Clin North Am 12:299, 1964
  • 4.Hustu HO, Pinkel D. Lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease and leukemia in bone. Clin Orthop 52:83, 1967
  • 5, Pinkel D. Commentary - Treatment of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Pediatr 77:1089, 1970
  • 6.Simone J, Aur RJA, Hustu HO, Pinkel D. "Total therapy" studies of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children. Current results and prospects for cure. Cancer 30:1488, 1972
  • 7.Pinkel D. Total therapy of acute lymphocytic leukemia. JAMA 222:1170, 1972
  • 8.Pinkel D, Johnson W, Aur RJA. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children. Br J Cancer 31:298, 1975
  • 9.Aur RJA, Simone JV, Verzosa MS, Hustu HO, Barker LF, Pinkel D. Comparison of four schedules of chemotherapy during remission of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Sangre 20:237, 1975
  • 10.Aur RJA, Simone JV, Pinkel D, Hustu HO, Verzosa MS. Current Status of total therapy of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia Revista De La Soeiedad Latinoamericana De Hematologia 17:35, 1975
  • 11.Pinkel D. Curability of childhood cancer. JAMA 235:1048, 1976
  • 12.Pinkel D. Treatment of aeute leukemia. Pediatr Clinic North Am 23:117, 1976
  • 13.Kun LE, Pinkel D. Editorial: Meningeal leukemia - control versus cure. Int JRad One Biol Phys 2:371, 1977
  • 10.Pinkel D. The Ninth Annual David Karnofsky Lecture: Treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 43:1128-1137, 1979
  • 11.Pinkel D. Patterns of failure in acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Treatment Symposia. Proc Workshop an Patterns of Failure After Cancer Treatment 2:259-266, 1983. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, NIH
  • 12.Pinkel D. Current issues in the management of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Postgrad Med J 61:93-102, 1985
  • 13.Pinkel D. Curing children of leukemia. Cancer 59:1683-1691, 1987
  • 14.Pinkel D. Curing children of acute lymphocytie leukemia. M. D. Anderson Oncology Case Reports and Review 2(4), 1987
  • 15.Pinkel D. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children with acute leukemia: A practice whose time has gone. Leukemia 3:242-244, 1989
  • 16.Pinkel D. Therapy of acute lymphoid leukemia in children. Leukemia 6(Suppl. 2): 127­131, 1992
  • 17.Pinkel D. Ethnicity and survival in children with acute lymphoid leukemia. Leukemia 7(Suppl. 2):146-147, 1993
  • 14.Pinkel D. Comment: Outcome of treatment for childhood cancer in black as compared with white children. JPediatr 27:500-501, 1995
  • 15.Pinkel D. Selecting treatment for children with acute lymphoblastie leukemia. J Clin Oncol 14:4-6-,1996.
  • 16.Pinkel, D. Book Review, Neoplastic Diseases of childhood. N. Eng J Med, 335: 212, 1996.
  • 17.Brenner, MK, Pinkel, D. , cure of Leukemia, Seminars in Hematology 36, suppl 7:73-83, 1999

Abstraets, published (Partial list):

  • 1.Pinkel D. Nefzger D. Some epidemiological features of leukemia in the Buffalo area of New York. Acta.- Unio Internationalis Contra Cancrum 16:1648, 1960
  • 1.George P, Pinkel D. CNS radiation in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia in remission. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 6:22, 1965
  • 2.Smith JW, Freeman AI, Pinkel D. Search for viruses in childhood leukemia and rhabdomyosarcoma. Bibl Haematologica 31:316, 1968
  • 1.Pinkel D, Aur RJA, Hustu HO, Simone J. Central nervous System therapy and combination chemotherapy in childhood lymphocytic leukemia. Proc XIII Internat Congress of Pediatr, Vienna, Austria, 14:135, 1971
  • 2.Pinkel D, Hustu HO, Pratt C. Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma with radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy. Proc XIII Internat Congress of Pediatr, Vienna, Austria, 14:53, 1971
  • 3.Green A, Hustu H, Pinkel D. Sequential total body irradiation and combination chemotherapy for patients with disseminated neuroblastoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 17:270, 1976
  • 4.Pinkel D. Treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Proc 13th Internat Cancer Congress, 1982
  • 1.Newman EM, Testi AM, Pinkel D. Biochemical interactions between methotrexate and 1-B-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 24:133, 1983
  • 2.Krane R, Newman E, Pinkel D, Rosen R, Harris M, Ravindranath Y, Freeman A. Intermediate dose methotrexate and Ara-C in continuation therapy of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 3:201, 1984
  • 3.Dow LW, Culbert SJ, Kennedy W, Pinkel DP. Response and toxicity to alpha-interferon in childhood Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 29:224, 1988
  • 1.Pinkel D, Culbert S, Ramirez I, Zipf T. A pilot study of species-specific therapy of non­-T, non-B acute lymphoid leukemia. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 30:264, 1989
  • 2.Pinkel D. Curing children of leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 39:2-3, 1989
  • 3.Pinkel DP, Culbert SJ, Lockhart SK, Mullins JK, Ramirez I, Zipf TF. Species-specific therapy of non-T non-B acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Pediatr Res 27:148A, 1990
  • 4.Culbert S, Frankel L, Hord M, Pinkel D. Comparison of treatment outcome between hispanic and non-hispanic children with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 31:201, 1990
  • 15.Antoun GR, Estrov Z, Felix EA, Pinkel DP, Re GG, Zipf TF. Differentiation within B­precursor acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 32:33, 1991
  • 15.Lockhart S, Plunkett W, Liliemark J, Pinkel D. Continuous Infusion (CI) high dose mercaptopurine (HD MP) and CI intermediate dose cytarabine (IDAra-C) in children with relapsed acute leukemia (AL). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 32:197, 1991
  • 16.Lockhart S, Plunkett W, Pinkel D. High dosage mercaptopurine (MP) and cytarabine (Ara-C) in relapsed acute leukemia. Haematologica 76:38, 1991
  • 15.Pinkel D, Culbert S, Lockhart S, Ramirez I, Zipf T, Mullins J. Species-specific therapy of B precursor acute lymphoid leukemia. Haematologica 76:47, 1991
  • 16.Pinkel D. Therapy of acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) in children. Haematologica 76:103, 1991
  • 17.Pinkel D, Lockhart S, Mullins J, Ramirez I, Zipf T. Species-specific therapy of childhood acute lymphoid leukemia. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 33: 211, 1992
  • 17.Estrov Z, Ouspenslcaia MV, Lee M-S, Lockhart SK, McClain K, Pinkel DP, Felix EA, Dianov CM, Zipf TF. Detection of residual acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) progenitor cells during remission using a clonogenic assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood 80:258a, 1992
  • 18.Ouspenskaia MV, Estrov Z, Felix EA, Harris D, Lee M-S, McClain K, Pinkel DP, Zipf T. Clonal evolution of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene during remission in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) of childhood: Detection by a clonogenic assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood 82:55a, 1993
  • 19.Estrov Z, Ouspenskaia MV, Lee M-S, Felix EA, Harris D, Pinkel DP, Johnston D, McClain K, Zipf TF. Comparison of the detection of residual ALL cells during remission by a combination of a clonogenic assay and PCR with detection by PCR alone: A prospective study. Blood 50a, 1993
  • 18.Pinkel, D. Genetic classification of childhood acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Blood 90:185a, 1997.
  • 19.Pinkel, D. Curing children of leukemia. International Journal of Oncology 2:915, 1997.
  • 20.Pinkel, D. Genotypic classification of childhood acute lymphoid leukemia. J Molecular Med 75:B159,1997.

Books and Chapters:

  • 1. Farber S, Toch R, Sears E, Pinkel D. Advances in chemotherapy of cancer in man. In: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 4, pp 1, 1956
  • 2.Pinkel D. Acute leukemia. In: Gellis S, Kagan B (eds). Current Pediatric Therapy, 5th Edition, pp 275-281. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
  • 3.Aur RJA, Pinkel D. Total therapy of acute lymphocytic leukemia. In: Ariel IM (ed). Progress in Clinical Cancer, VolumeV. New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1973
  • 4.Pinkel D, Pratt C. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. In: Holland J, Frei E (eds). Cancer Medicine, pp 1900-1907. Philadelphia: Lea Febiger, 1973
  • 5.Simone J, Pinkel D. Rationale and results of combination chemotherapy and cranial irradiation in acute lymphocytic leukemia. In: Dutcher RM, Chieco-Branchi L (eds). Unifying Concepts of Leukemia, pp 1068-1073, 1973
  • 6.Pinkel D. Treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia Research Fund, Eighth Annual Guest Lecture, London, 1973, BWW Printers, Ltd, Somerset.
  • 2.Borella L, Green AA, Aur RJA, Simone JV, Pinkel D. Clinical and immunological recovery of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia admitted to "total therapy" studies. In: Mathe G, Pouillart T, Schwarzenberg L (eds). Recent Results in Cancer-Research, Volume 43. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1974
  • 2.Pinkel D. Acute leukemia in childhood. In: Conn HF Conn (ed). Current Therapy, 26th Edition, pp 272-278. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1973
  • 3.Pinkel D. Acute leukemia. In: Gellis SS, Kagan BM (eds). Current Pediatric Therapy, 6th Edition, pp 283-284. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1973
  • 3.Pratt CB, Hustu HO, Pinkel D. Coordinated treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Prog Clinc Cancer, Volume 6, pp 87, 1975
  • 4.Pinkel D. Acute leukemia. In: Gellis SS, Kagan BM (eds). Current Pediatric Therapy, 7th Edition, pp 267-274. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1976
  • 5.Pinkel D. Chemotherapy of acute leukemia. In: Cancer Chemotherapy III. New York: Kahn SB, Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1978
  • 2.Pinkel D, Simone J, Aur RJA, Borella LD, Hustu HO. Perspectives in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. In: Bentvelzen P, Nilgers J, Yohn D (eds). Proc VIII Internat Symposium on Comparative Research on Leukemia. New York: Elsevier/Holland Biomedical Press, 1978
  • 6.Pinkel D. Cure of the child with Cancer - definition and prospective. In: Care of the Child with Cancer, pp 191-200. Philadelphia: George F. Stickley Co., 1979
  • 4.Pinkel D. The First Frederick Stohlman Lecture: Treatment of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. In: Modern Trends in Human Leukemia III, pp 25-33. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1979
  • 16.Casper J, Pinkel D. Neuroblastoma. In: Gellis S, Kagan B (eds). Current Pediatric Therapy, 9th Edition, pp 283-284. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1980
  • 16.Pinkel D. Criteria for biological cure of cancer. In: van Eys J, Sullivan M (eds). Status of the Curability of Childhood Cancers, pp 21-25. New York: Raven Press, 1980
  • 17.Pinkel D, Pratt C. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. In: Holland JF, Frei E (eds). Cancer Medicine, 2nd Edition, pp 2199-2207. Philadelphia: Lea Febiger, 1982
  • 18.Pinkel D. Treatment of childhood leukemia, a review. In: Yohn DS, Blakeslee JR (eds). Advances in Comparative Leukemia Research 1981, pp 493-502. New York: Elsevier Biomedical Publishing Co., 1982.
  • 19.Pinkel D. History and development of total therapy for acute lymphoeytic leukemia. Leukemia Research. In: Murphy SB, Gilbert JR (eds). Advances in Cell Biology and Treatment, pp 189-201. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., 1983.
  • 20.Pinkel D. Acute leukemia in childhood. In: Brain MC, McCulloch PB (eds). Current Therapy in Hematology Oncology, 1983-1984, pp 81-87. B.C. Decker, Inc., 1985.
  • 21.Pinkel D, Howarth CB. Pediatric neoplasms. In: Calabresi P, Schein P, Rosenberg S (eds). Medical Oncology, pp 1226-1257. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1985.
  • 22.Pinkel D. Acute leukemia. In: Gellis S, Kagan B (eds). Current Pediatric Therapy, 12th Edition, pp 275-279. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1986.
  • 23.Pinkel D. The goal of medicine. In: Van Eys J, McGovem J (eds). The Doctor as a Person, pp 43-48. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1988.
  • 24.Pinkel D, Grauoff A, Guest Editors: In: Genetic Targeting in Leukemia, Accomplishments in Oncology, Number 2, Volume 2. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1988.
  • 16.Gottlieb RA, Pinkel D. In: Handbook of Pediatric Oncology, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1989. 25.Pinkel D. Species-specific therapy of acute lymphoid leukemia. In: Neth R. (ed). Modern Trends in Human Leukemia, VIII, pp 27-35. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
  • 26.Pinkel D. Acute leukemia. In: Gellis S, Kagan B (eds). Current Pediatric Therapy, 13th Edition, pp 263-267, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1990.
  • 29. Pinkel D. Foreword. In: Childhood aeute lymphoblastic leukemia-Part II. Hematology1Oncology Clinics of North America, pp xi-xii. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1990.
  • 30.Pinkel D, Howarth C. Pediatric neoplasms. In: Calabresi P, Schein P (ed). Medical Oncology: Basic Principles and Clinical Management of Cancer, pp 995-1020. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1993.
  • 32., Pinkel D. Foreword. In: Bearison DJ, Mulhern RK (eds). Pediatric Psychooncology. Psychological Perspective an Children With_Cancer, pp vii-viii. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • 33.Pinkel D, Zipf TF. Childhood leukemia. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, Niederhuber JE (eds). Clinical Oncology, pp 1889-1910. New York: Churchill Livingstone, Inc., 1995.
  • 34.Pinkel D. Historical perspective. In: C.H. Pui (Ed.) Childhood Leukemias, pp 3-18. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. second edition 2006

Letters to Editor:

  • 1.Fleming I, Pinkel D. Clinical staging of Wilms' tumor. J Pediatr 74:324, 1969.
  • 2.Pinkel D. CNS relapses in Childhood leukemia. Lancet, November 14, 1981.
  • 3.Pinkel D. Differentes between neuroblastoma stages IV-S and IV N Enl J Med 305:1418, 1981.
  • 1.Pinkel D. 6-Mercaptopurine dosage. Lancet 11:1267, 1987.
  • 2.Pinkel D. Cure of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood 74:888, 1989.
  • 3.Pinkel D, Gehan E. Reporting of Clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 8:180-181, 1990.
  • 4.Pinkel D. Reply. J Pediatr 123:492-493, 1993.
  • 5.Pinkel D. Reply. J Pediatr 124:329-330, 1994.
  • 6.Pinkel D. Bone marrow transplant in acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol 17-37,1994.
  • 7.Pinkel D. Role of bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoid leukemia. J Pediatr 125: 506, 1994.
  • 8.Pinkel D. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a second remission. N Eng J Med 332:823, 1995.
  • 9.Pinkel D. Acute lymphoid leukemia outcomes in black and white children. JAMA 274:379, 1995.
  • 10.Pinkel D. Bone marrow transplant for leukemia. Lancet 346:60, 1995
  • 14.Pinkel D. Childhood cancer mortality. Lancet 348:474, 1996.
  • 15.Pinkel D. Differentiating juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia from infectious disease. Blood 91:365, 1998.
  • 16.Pinkel D. Cancer chemotherapy and body surface area. J Clin Oncol 16: 3714-3715, 1998.
  • 17.Pinkel D, Treatment of children with acute myeloid leukemia, Blood 97:3673, 2001
  • Revised March 2002

Don in Wilsede

Available Books at Wilsede Science Connections

  • WHITE BLOOD, Personal Journeys with Childhood Leukaemia edited by Mel Greaves (The Institute of Cancer Research, UK)

    You may buy the complete book at World Scientific

  • Contact

    email: Don Pinkel